The Sukhoi PAK FA ( Future Frontline Aircraft System), is a fifth generation fighter aircraft being developed by Sukhoi OKB for the Russian Air Force.
The current prototype is Sukhoi’s T-50. The PAK FA when fully developed is intended to replace the MiG-29 Fulcrum and Su-27 Flanker in the Russian inventory and serve as the basis of the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA project being developed with India. A fifth generation jet fighter, it is designed to directly compete with Lockheed Martin’s F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II. The T-50 performed its first flight January 29, 2010. Sukhoi director Mikhail Pogosyan has projected a market for 1000 aircraft over the next four decades, which will be produced in a joint venture with India, two hundred each for Russia and India and six hundred for other countries.
Length: 19.8 m (65.9 ft)
Wingspan: 14 m (46.6 ft)
Height: 6.05 m (19.8 ft)
Wing area: 78.8 m2 (848.1 ft2)
Empty weight: 18,500 kg (40,785 lb)
Loaded weight: 26,000 kg (57,320 lb)
Useful load: 7,500 kg (combat load) (16,534 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 37,000 kg (81,570 lb)
Powerplant: 2× New unnamed engine by NPO Saturn and FNPTS MMPP Salyut of 175 kN each Prototype with AL-41F1 of 147 kN each, definitive version with new engine >157 kN
Maximum Fuel weight: 10,300 kg (22,711 lb)
Maximum speed: 2,600 km/h (Mach 2.45) (at 17,000 m altitude) (1,615 mph (at 45,000 ft altitude))
Cruise speed: 1,300 – 1,800 km/h (808 – 1,118 mph)
Ferry range: 5,500 km
Service ceiling: 20,000 m (65,616 ft)
Rate of climb: 350 m/sec (1184 ft/sec)
Wing loading: 330(normal) – 470(maximum) kg/m2 (67(normal) – 96(maximum) lb/ft2)
Maximum g-load: +10.0/+11.0 g
Rolltop Computer, is a portable stylized computing device that can act as a laptop, tablet, eReader or even a TV. It reminds one of a roll able aerobic mat with a strap that you can be carry around. The device comes with a flexible OLED display which also handles multitouch. When fully rolled out, it ends up as a 17″ flatscreen display. Folded, it can be used as a 13″ notebook/tablet. A portion of the display is used as a keyboard and the rest as dispay screen.
The device is composed of two parts. The flexible OLED display and a tower, on which the display is rapped around. The tower contains the power adapter, speaker, webcam and the USB interface.…
The very basic of CSS is to know the properties common to all elements. Margin and padding are 2 important properties that determine how an element is displayed on the screen. It is very important so know how these properties work on different elements under different circumstances. Margin, padding and border are all what surrounds an element. So what are the differences? Margin and padding are invisible where as border can have any color. Read each in details.
Margin is the invisible space that an element can have around it that spaces it from surrounding elements. It is the outermost among margin, border and padding. The margin area cannot contain anything. It acts more like an invisible insulator for the element. All four margins can be independently defined.
Border is the next property after margin in terms of position. Border helps to insulate an element visually. The border can have any color unlike margin and padding or colorless by not defining the color or by defining the color as transparent. All four margins can be independently defined.
Padding is the innermost among margin, border and padding properties. Padding defines how other elements are placed within an element. The background of the element starts after the border and is visible in the margin area.
If not specified the width of most elements are dynamic. It will be automatically adjusted to contain the contents. ‘div’ element occupy the entire width of the parent element. If the width is not defined for an element then the total horizontal space the element will occupy includes the margin, border, padding and width of the contents. That is, the width is automatically adjusted to accommodate the margin, border and width. If the width is defined then the element will grow out when margin and border are defined. So the total horizontal volume will be the sum of width, border and margin.
NB: Width property doesn’t effect some elements like span tag () and anchor tag ()…
Just today as I was browsing the BBC website, I came across the software application to build simple stickman animations. The freeware application called Pivot is very easy and handy to use. Play around and you will realize it.…
Bottled water is considered to be safe by most people, which is a popular myth. The amount of money and resources that are spend to bottle drinking water and transport it around the glob is huge. Studies have shown that with just a fraction of this money we can provide drinking water and sanitation to everyone on earth. At the same time we can reduce that strain that we exert on earth. Are we trying to keep our economic growth at the cost of our environment?
Bottled water in the west costs more than $1.50 per bottle. This is 1,900 times that of tap water
An average US citizen spends over $400 every year on bottled water.
Health can be damaged by toxic chemicals like Bisphenol_A (BPA), leached from bottled water. BPA intake can also cause cancerous cell in body
The environment is tainted by the Production, Transportation, Packaging and Disposal of plastic bottled water
In 2004 the bottled water usage was 26,000,000,000 litters.
That measns approxmately 28,000,000,000 plastic bottles.
86% of this bottles endup as trash.
1,500 bottles end up as garbage every second.
28,000,000,000 bottles mean 17,000,000 barrels of oil that was used to produce those plastic bottles.
It also mean 2,500,000 tones of carbon dioxide emision as past of plastic bottle manufacturing.
Consumers spend $100 Billion on bottled waters
Research shows that for a fraction of this amount everyone on the planet could have safe drinking water and proper sanitation.
Survey shows that 35% of bottled water drinkers that it is safer than Tap water.
That much oil could have powered 100,000 cars for that year.
Water bottles stored in hot conditions (eg: in cars) can leach out chemicals that can lead to breast and other types of cancer.
Bottled waters are subjected to extreme temperatures during their storage (warehouse) and transportation
Google had enabled adding image to the gmail signature. This was a much awaited feature. But it doesnt allow you to directly upload any picture. Instead you will have to upload your picture/image to some online photo album or file hosting that allow hot-linking. Then you will have to provide the URL to that image in Google signature. Since Google provides Picasa web album we can use it to upload your image.
This post will take you through step by step instructions to achieve this.
First you need to upload the image/picture that you want to include in your email signature to Picasa. You can go to Picasa Album by wither going to http://picasaweb.google.com or clicking the Photo Menu at the top left corner in Gmail window as shown below.
No you will be taken to the Picasa website. Here you will find an Upload button at the top as shown below. Click that button
Then window pops up and ask you to either select an album or to create a new album to add the image to. If you do not have an album created please do so first. You will have to give an Album name and create a new album in this case.
Now it will present you with a list of text-boxes and buttons to upload the images. Click the browse button and select the image/picture that you want to upload and click ok. Once you have choosen the image(s) that you want to upload, press the Start Upload button.
Now you will see the image(s) that had been uploaded. You have to get the image URL to put in your signature. For this Right Click the mouse over the image. In the menu that comes up you will see Copy Image URL or Copy Image Location or something similar depending on the web browser that you use. Click it and the image URL will be copied to your clipboard. There are multiple ways to get the image URL. I recommend the one I explained above.
Now go to Gmail and click settings at the top right corner. In settings (General Tab) you can find the signature editor. Click the Add Image icon. This pops up a form to add the image URL. Right Click the text box and click paste. This will paste the image URL that you copied in the previous step. If the URL can be accessed the picture will be shown below the text box and the OK button becomes enabled. Click Ok and the picture is added to your signature editor box. Now you can move the picture around as you want.…
I have always been lazy to clean my car. Cars covered in dust are filthy and disgusting sight. A bunch of creative artists have found potential for art creation in these. Filthy Car shields have turned into the canvas for these ingenious artists.
Usually a sailing rig is used to drill test holes and find oil. It is held in place by anchor chains or computer-controlled propellers.
Royal Dutch Shell plans to deploy the world’s first sailing liquefied natural gas plant, at the Prelude and Concerto gas fields off the coast of northwestern Australia. The gigantic vessel is much larger than an aircraft carrier, weighing 600,000 metric tons and measuring 1,574 feet long and 246 feet wide. Even the U.S. Navy’s new nuclear supercarrier would only barely top 100,000 metric tons. The world’s largest passenger ship also only reaches a tonnage of 220,000 metric tons.
Floating LNG plant is increasingly being considered as a way to commercialize stranded gas resources too small to support the construction of more expensive onshore LNG terminals and their associated pipeline infrastructure. LNG is natural gas super-cooled to liquid form so it can be transported by ship to places not connected by pipeline.
Such a monster ship would be able to reach “stranded” gas fields far out in the oceans, whereas usual operations require long undersea pipelines to reach the gas fields. The mobile gas processing planet also has the advantage of not going obsolete when gas fields run dry. The untested method is a “game-changer,” allowing discoveries that are small and too far from the coast to justify onshore plants to be profitable.
The Hague-based Shell’s plans to employ what it called the biggest ship in the world are backed by the largest exploration budget of any oil company, estimated at $31 billion this year and $28 billion in 2010, the company’s executive director, Malcolm Brinded said. The project is among more than a dozen that may propel Australia to second among global suppliers of the fuel from fifth now.
Shell in July awarded a contract to Samsung Heavy Industries Co. and Technip to design, construct and install floating LNG facilities over 15 years. Shell may order as many as 10 units worth about $5 billion each, Samsung Heavy estimated in a July statement.
The vessel is designed to withstand a “one-in-10,000-year” tropical cyclone, Brinded said.…
The idea of constructing wings in order to resemble the flight of birds dates to the ancient Greek legend of Daedalus (Greek demigod engineer) and Icarus (Daedalus’s son). One of the first recorded – still dilettante – attempts with gliders were those by the 11th century monk Eilmer of Malmesbury (recorded in the 12th century) and the 9th century poet Abbas Ibn Firnas (recorded in the 17th century); both experiments ended with lasting injuries to their pilots. Roger Bacon, writing in 1260, was among the first to consider a technological means of flight. In 1485 , Leonardo da Vinci began to study the flight of birds. He grasped that humans are too heavy, and not strong enough, to fly using wings simply attached to the arms. Therefore he proposed a device in which the aviator lies down on a plank and works two large, membranous wings using hand levers, foot pedals, and a system of pulleys.
The first ornithopters capable of flight were constructed in France in the 1870s. Gustave Trouvé’s 1870 model flew a distance of 70 meters in a demonstration for the French Academy of Sciences. The wings were flapped by gunpowder charges activating a bourdon tube. Jobert in 1871 used a rubber band to power a small model bird. Alphonse Penaud, Hureau de Villeneuve, Victor Tatin, and others soon followed with their own designs.
Around 1890, Lawrence Hargrave built several ornithopters powered by steam or compressed air. He introduced the use of small flapping wings providing the thrust for a larger fixed wing. This eliminated the need for gear reduction, thereby simplifying the construction. To achieve a more birdlike appearance, this approach is not generally favored today.
In the 1930s, Erich von Holst carried the rubber band powered bird model to a high state of development and great realism. Also in the 1930s, Alexander Lippisch and other researchers in Germany harnessed the piston internal combustion engine.
Human Powered Ornithopters
Around 1894, Otto Lilienthal became famous in Germany for his widely publicized, partially successful ornithopter experiments. Even though popularly known in English as the Glider King for his earlier gliding experiments, Lilienthal’s new device was in fact an ornithopter with wings powered only by a man’s arm power, as indicated by his invention’s official name of kleiner Schlagflügelapparat (lit. “small flapping-wing device”).
In 1929, a man-powered ornithopter designed by Alexander Lippisch flew a distance of 250 to 300 meters after tow launch. The flight duration was necessarily short due to the limitations of human muscle power. Since a tow launch was used, some have questioned whether the aircraft was capable of sustained flight, however brief. Lippisch asserted that the aircraft was actually flying, not making an extended glide. Later tow-launched flights include Bedford Maule (1942), Emil Hartmann (1959), and Vladimir Toporov (1993). All faced similar limitations due to the reliance on human muscle power.
In 1942, Adalbert Schmid flew a motorized, manned ornithopter at Munich-Laim. It was driven by small flapping wings mounted at the sides of the fuselage, behind a larger fixed wing. Fitted with a 3 hp Sachs motorcycle engine, it made flights up to 15 minutes in duration. Schmid later constructed a 10 hp ornithopter based on the Grunau-Baby IIa sailplane, which was flown in 1947. The second aircraft had flapping outer wing panels.
In 2005, Yves Rousseau was given the Paul Tissandier Diploma, awarded by the FAI for contributions to the field of aviation. Rousseau attempted his first human-muscle-powered flight with flapping wings in 1995. On 20 April 2006, at his 212th attempt, he succeeded in flying a distance of 64 metres, observed by officials of the Aero Club de France. Unfortunately, on his 213th flight attempt, a gust of wind led to a wing breaking up, causing the pilot to be gravely injured and rendered paraplegic.
A team at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, headed by Professor James DeLaurier, worked for several years on an engine-powered, piloted ornithopter. In July 2006, at the Bombardier Airfield at Downsview Park in Toronto, Professor DeLaurier’s machine, the UTIAS Ornithopter No.1 made a jet-assisted takeoff and 14-second flight. According to DeLaurier, the jet was necessary for sustained flight, but the flapping wings did most of the work.
Snowbird Is The Latest Attempt
On August 2, 2010, Todd Reichert, an Engineering PhD candidate at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, piloted ‘Snowbird’, surpassed the record set by Ornithopter No.1. Initially towed by a car until lift was achieved, Snowbird sustained 19.3 seconds of flight, covering a distance of 145 meters. Developed by Reichert, Cameron Robertson, James DeLaurier and assistance from students from the University of Toronto and other institutions, Snowbird will become the record holder for the longest sustained flight by a human-powered ornithopter pending …
Most of us take the keyboard in front of you for granted. Have you ever wondered why the keys are arranged in what seems like a illogical pattern?
QWERTY is the most used modern-day keyboard layout on English-language computer and typewriter keyboards. It takes its name from the first six characters seen in the far left of the keyboard’s top row of letters. The QWERTY design is based on a layout designed by C. Latham Sholes in 1874 for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter.
QWERTY key arrangement first appeared in typewriters. It was designed to minimize typebar clashes, became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, and remains in use on electronic keyboards due to the network effect of a standard layout and the failure of alternatives to provide very significant advantages.
The QWERTY keyboard, so named for the first six characters of the uppermost alphabetic row, was invented during the course of the typewriter’s development. The first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows of characters arranged alphabetically as follows:
3 5 7 9 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
2 4 6 8 . A B C D E F G H I J K L M
The mechanics of the machine, however, made this arrangement problematic. The typebars were attached to the circumference of a metal ring, forming a “basket”. When a key was pressed, the corresponding typebar would swing upwards, causing the print head to strike at the center of the ring. Gravity would then return the typebar to its initial position. The implication of this design, however, was that pressing adjoining keys in quick succession would cause their typebars to collide and jam the machine. To mitigate this problem, keys were reordered using analysis of letter frequency and trial and error. Typebars corresponding to letters in commonly occurring alphabetical pairs, such as S and T, were placed on opposite sides on the disk. The keyboard ultimately presented to Remington was arranged as follows:
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 – ,
Q W E . T Y I U O P
Z S D F G H J K L M
A X & C V B N ? ; R…